The results of the 1997-annual referendum of Tel Aviv University’s Center of Strategic Studies showed that 31% of Israelis objected returning the Golan to Syria, which was the lowest percentage scored hitherto, whereas the National Mefdal Religious Party confirmed its previous positions rejecting any withdrawal from the Golan. In a speech delivered on 7 July 1997 in commemorating the 25th anniversary of settlement commencement in the Golan, Rabbi "Yizhak Levi" , the then Israeli Minister of Communication, said that his party had joined the Israeli government under Benjamin Netanyahu because it was confident of the government’s policy in rejecting the withdrawal from the Golan and enforcing Israeli settlement therein.

Illegitimacy, and international condemn, of the Israeli Settlement

The international community has repeatedly and frequently expressed , through its legal foundations, the illegitimacy of the settlement in the territories occupied by force. International conventions and agreements condemn the Israeli procedures in the territories occupied in June 1967 aggression regarding the confiscation of Arab territories, and setting up settlements it rejects annexation of the regions and acquisition of land by force. The foremost of such agreements and conventions are the Hague Agreement of 1907, Geneva Convention of 1949, besides many rulings of international courts and the UN and the Security Council Resolutions. One of the most important Security Council Resolutions is N° 242 of 22 November 1967, in which the Council confirmed the illegitimacy of seizing the territories occupied during the last fight, guaranteeing non-invasion and political independence of every State in the Region". The Council further confirmed under its Resolution N° 338 of 22 March 1973 the illegitimacy of confiscating Territories and settlements construction in the Arab occupied Territories. A similar Resolution numbered 452 was issued by the Council on 20 July 1979. The UN issued many Resolutions which confirm the repeated infringements by "Israel" of Geneva Convention as regards settlement in the Arab occupied Territories and violating of human rights accord in these Territories occupied by "Israel", besides denouncing the policy and procedures of "Israel" in the Arab occupied Territories describing them as illegitimate.

Golan Annexation Decision

On 14 December 1981, the Israeli Knesset ratified the decision taken by Rabin’s extremist government to annex the Golan Occupied to the Israeli territory. Begin stood on the eve of 1 December 1981 to impudently announce that "The Occupied Golan were in the past a part of the Palestine Territory and that those who established the borders of the States in the Region during the First World War drew arbitrary borders with Syria. Such situation is rectified as of now on, and only those who are unrealistically optimistic believe that Israel will withdraw from the Golan".

It is odd that Begin did not have any kind connection with Palestine during the First World War other than the Zionist Schemes to usurp it. Throughout and after the Second World War, Begin and the other Zionist terrorists perpetrated many massacres to expel Palestinians from their HOMEland. Then he was defending the re-establishment of Palestine’s borders which he had usurped together with its adjacent territories in order to devour more lands and expel more Arabs from the Golan, West bank and Gaza Strip. He was very much like the burglar who steals a house and then claims that the next house was once a part of the house he had stolen and seized by force. Despite that stupid demagogy, he quoted falsified historical facts; Palestine had wholly and always constituted the southern part of Syria, and a part of the Natural Syria.

In the speech he delivered on the eve of 14 December 1981, Begin said, "Syrians have terrorized the Israeli areas dominated on the Heights through shelling the Israeli inhabitants living at the foot of the Heights ".

The following is the text of the Annexation Decision:

• The Israeli State Law, its jurisdiction and administration shall be applied to the Occupied Golan.

• This Law shall be implemented immediately upon being ratified by the Knesset.

• The Interior Minister is required to implement this Law.


Hereunder is the text of the Syrian Arab Statement of 14 December 1981:

Within the framework of the Zionist Enemy aggressive expansionist policy, starting with judaization operations, settlements building, displacing and oppressing, Arab inhabitants the Israeli Enemy Government has taken a decision imposing the Israeli laws in the occupied Syrian Arab territories.

The Government of the Syrian Arab Republic, while drawing the attention of the Arab public opinion and the world community to the risk of such procedure and its negative reflections on security and peace in the region and all over the world, would indicate the following:

1. Syria reserves its right to take the appropriate measures against this flagrant infringement of the UN Charter and Resolutions, including Resolution N° 338.

1. Such Israeli decision implies the annexation of the occupied Syrian territories, waging war against Syria and cancellation the cease fire agreement.

1. Such Israeli decision asserts the aggressive and expansionist policy of the offensive Israeli entity and reveals the kind of peace it wants.

The Syrian Government’s political statement on 16 December 1981 included the following:

It is on the Fourteenth Day of this Month that the Israeli Enemy has taken a decision to impose the Israeli laws on the occupied Syrian Arab territories within the framework of its expansionist policy which aims to establish the ‘Great Israel" from the Nile to the Euphrates. Such decision has been taken, following a series of procedures and resolutions taken within the rest of the occupied Arab territories, building of settlements, oppressing and constricting Arab inhabitants to displace them and judaize the occupied regions, right up to declaring Jerusalem as a unified capital of the Hebrew State and applying the civil administration as comprehended for Palestinians autonomy in implementation of the two Camp David Accords. In the light of such events the Leadership has discussed this question within the framework of our comprehensive vision of the Arab-Israeli struggle and all the surrounding circumstances, and resolved how to confront this national question. In the light of the President’s directives, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has:

1. Called for an urgent meeting of the Security Council in order to discuss the perilous situation and to take a resolution to delete the Israeli decision, apply the UN charter and penalize the Israeli Enemy.

2. Contacted all the Security Council members to explain the results and potential problems of the risky situation and requested them all to assume their responsibilities in the field of world peace keeping in accordance with the Charter.

3. Contacted all world states in order to explain such situation and how perilous it is, requested their support and backing. Messages have been addressed to the Non-Alliance Movement, Islamic Conference and African Unity Organization.

4. Has contacted Arab States via their Ambassadors in Damascus and the Secretary General of the Arab League.

Communications with sister Arab Countries will be continued in order to unify the Arab stand, and in order to confront such perilous development. The Government and Leadership are both following with great concern these developments.

The 17 December 1981 Declaration of the late Ahmad Iskandar Ahmad, then the Minister of Information:

The late Minister of Information, Mr. Ahmad Iskandar Ahmad, declared on Thursday 17 December 1981 that Syria was still committed to, and abiding by, the Agreement of Force Dissociation in the Golan reached in 1974; but it would nevertheless take necessary precautions to confront any further potential results. Syria considers that Golan annexation, Israeli decision a violation of the cease fire resolution between itself and Israel. In a press conference, held on the situation following the Syrian occupied Golan annexation, Mr. Ahmad added that Syria would do its utmost and would spare no effort in order to defend its right in the Territory and liberate the occupied Arab Territories. He said, "We, in Syria, have not once endeavored to initiate a war, because war is not a hobby of ours; we have always been forced to defend ourselves and safeguard our children against killing. The last Israeli decision of the Golan annexation and continuous aggressive expansionist Israeli spirit will newly push the Region to the edge of war".

The Zionist Enemy government of decision to annex the occupied Syrian Golan to Israel was confronted by all the citizens with complete rejection and denunciation. Inhabitants of the occupied villages, backed by the Arab citizens of the occupied West Bank, attacked the Israeli military vehicles, decried the Israeli expansionist policy. Syrian Arab national personalities of Majdal Shams and Mas’adeh denounced Israel’s expansionist policy; Sheik Soulayman Abou Saleh said in Majdal Shams, his alert village, "We are and will be, for ever, Syrian Citizens; a few decisions enacted by the Israeli Knesset won’t change our belonging to Syria, our mother HOMEland". All citizens responded to the comprehensive strike call on 16 December 1981 to protest against the decision of the Golan annexation; schools from all villages went on strike; teachers, pupils and students refrained from attending their schools despite the Israeli Enemy’s threats. Public struggle is still on to this every day.

The Israeli heinous decision to annex the occupied Syrian Golan was also confronted with comprehensive Arab censure and condemnation on all public and political levels. Statements issued by the Arab States asserted that such new aggressive act against Arab Nation was a violation of the international law and revealed the Israeli expansionist schemes. The statements confirmed that all Arab, people and governments are to back Syria in order to restore its right to its national Territory.

For its part, the Security Council unanimously adopted the its following Resolution N° 497 early on 19 December 1981 after many consultations and meetings:

"The Security Council has reviewed the Syrian Arab Republic’s Permanent Representative’s message dated 11 December 1981, and, while reiterating that acquisition of territories by force is rejected as stipulated under the UN Charter, principles of International Law and its express Resolutions, IT:

• Decides that the decision, taken by Israel, to impose its laws, legislations, administrative regulations on the occupied Golan is null and void, and of no legal effect on the international level.

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Peace Process and Settlements 

Years after the Madrid conference, held to settle the Arab-Israeli conflict, and particularly after the sort of negotiations on the Syrian-Israeli track, It become clear that these negotiations revolved around several axes: Withdrawal-The concept of peace and normalization of relations-security measures. Syria tried to negotiate the question of Withdrawal considering it on of the four inseparable from other elements. Thus, marginalizing the vital question of Withdrawal, and putting all kinds of irrelevant condition to this Withdrawal such as security arrangements , phases and immediately open boarders before the forces of occupation start retreating.










The Israeli settlements in the Golan constitute an important part of the Israeli regional defensive system of the Occupied Golan. Settlement there were established in accordance with a strategy based on their participation in the Israeli military plans for defense and attack. There are three conditions that must be taken into consideration while Israel continues settlements construction, namely: availability of arable land, abundance of water resources and a suitable strategic site. The Golan settlements are situated within two zones. The first is stretching as an arch that starts at the foot of Mt. Hermon near Banias Town in the North, following the cease fire line along the Mas’adeh - Alqunaitra Road then Alqunaitra - Alrafeed - Alhimmeh Road . Three settlements, established after 1973, closed the gap of Alkhushniyeh in the mid of the Heights. The second is situated to the south-west of the Golan in Albtaiha plain along the eastern coast of Tiberias. The aforementioned settlement lines conform, to a large scale, with those of the 1967- Axon’s settlement project which calls for annexation of the greater part of the Golan to ‘Israel’ under the pretext of securing a defensive line which secures the control of the water resources and the springs of Jordan River besides establishing the "security" Wadi Alhouleh and Hebron settlements. The "Alme’rakh’s" Israeli Government adopted , until 1977, the principle of "not to withdraw from the Golan", even if a settlement is reached with Syria.

Thus, Immediately after the 1967-aggression, the Israeli Forces started to expel Golan inhabitants from the occupied areas of the Golan, destroyed 133 out of 139 villages, many towns and 61 farms, only 5 inhabited villages survived in the north-west of the Golan; and only 6,000 inhabitants remained there, besides about 25 people in Al-Qunaitra. Israeli objective was to empty the Region of its Arab population, have them replaced by Israelis and provide such Israelis with land sufficient for their agricultural activities. Before the Israeli withdrew from the area in 1974, they destroyed the place completely.

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The Liberation War for just peace


The late President, Hafez Assad confirmed that Syria’s objective is to restore the usurped rights; " We have fought in order to restore the land and rights. The struggle has been carried on to realize such objective. The wars we have fought and sacrificed for were not for the sake of exercising our strength or for the mere love of strife. We have always fought, to defend our right and dignity and to free the land.", "We want the honorable peace that will be acceptable to our peoples and will not cede a grain of our HOMEland. It is the peace under which neither our rights will be relinquished nor the dignity of our Nation will be neglected".

The preparation stages were confined to Syria and Egypt being the two Countries capable of stirring the military and political situation under the general and particular circumstances prevailing at the time. It was obvious that any war to be waged against Israel would be a limited one because the international community would not support the Arabs further than liberating the territories occupied in 1967. It was by the end of 1972 that Syria and Egypt thought of the preparations for initiating the battle. Egypt set up the "Planning Commission" which was instructed to immediately consider the Israeli military potentials. After exhausting studies, it was concluded that the Israeli army’s fighting capabilities were based on four basic factors:

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Chapters of Resistance

On 4 June 1971, the Israeli Authorities arrested the National Leader Kamal Abou Saleh and sentenced him to 23-year imprisonment. In the meantime they announced that they ran to earth a new network working with Syria. They tried to install local councils of loyal members, establish a Sectarian Court and collect income tax. All the aforementioned were not disclosed to the mass media. Early in 1973 the Israeli Authorities arrested 67 Golan villagers soon after the youth Izzat Shakeeb Abou Jabal was killed by an Israeli patrol while carrying out a national struggle mission. Israeli military courts severely judged these arrestees for charges of cooperating with Syria; one ruling reached as much as a 513-year imprisonment against Shakeeb Abou Jabal. During the 1973-War, the Syrian Army liberated parts of the Golan. This war beame a landmark. The fact that Syria restored an important part of the Golan demolished the psychological barrier and revived people’s hope. Especially when Al-Qunaitra was liberated under the Forces Disengagement Agreement on 26 June 1974. Israeli Authorities continued oppressing the Golan inhabitants; on 25 January 1975 they arrested a great number of the Golan inhabitants under security and political charges among which was sending letters to the local councils members threatening them of assassination if they did not resign. When the Syrian Flag was hoisted on the occupied villages schools on 17 April 1975; celebrating Syrian Evacuation Day, great forces dashed through these villages, entered the houses and arrested scores of students. On 18 December 1976 the youth Nazeeh Abou Zaid was killed while crossing a minefield on the border hedge; a repetition of the same incident three years ago when the youth Izzat Abou Jabal was similarly martyred. The 1980’s was an important landmark for the Golan inhabitants resistance of both the Israeli occupation and its procedures that aimed to obliterate and eliminate their Arab Identity. A decision issued in November 1980 under which the Israeli Naturalization Law was amended in order to entitle the Interior Minister the authority of granting the Israeli Nationality to any inhabitant if this meets Israel's interest. By the end of that year, Israel practiced pressure on the Golan inhabitants to accept the Israeli identity card. But despite terror and desire, they did not yield and all attempts of obliterating their identity were in vain. They refused the Israeli identity card so vigorously that the Israeli Interior Ministry opened offices on 23 September 1981 in the Golan to restore the identity cards after 250 out of 348 people returned their cards. Moreover, there were many applications of card returning under the lawyers consideration pending the corresponding administrative procedure. It is worth mentioning that thwarting of the Israelis attempt of imposing the Israeli identity on the Golan Inhabitants came in the aftermath of a decision issued by the head Sheiks to excommunicate any of the Golan inhabitants who would accept the Israeli identity card. Such decision implied that Israeli identity card holders would be prevented from entering the places of prayers, be economically and socially boycotted; no trading; no business; no inter-marriage; no sharing or participation in his joys or sorrows; a total seclusion. Upon the death of an Israeli identity card holder, no one followed his coffin except four of his immediate kinsfolk who carried out the usual funereal religious and social rites.

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