The USA Sponsorship

In his speech delivered in front of Madrid Peace Conference on 30 October 1991, USA Ex-President George Bush, specified the American role in the process of settling the Arab-Zionist Conflict, by saying, "We are endeavoring for a stable continuous settlement all over the Middle East ( ... ). I, with James Baker, the Secretary of State, will assume an active role to help succeed such process. Based on such objective, we have given written confirmations to Israel, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine; motivated by the spirit of frankness and honesty; we will let any side know the assurances presented, by us, to the other (... ) The USA is ready to facilitate the search for peace and to be, as ever, an assisting element. We are seeking only one thing, not for ourselves but for the peoples of the region".

It is on this background that Washington played a host for the bilateral negotiations along all tracks, including the Syrian-Israeli one. Each of James Baker and Warren Christopher, the Ex- and current USA Secretary of State, made shuttle trips in the Middle East, and summit meetings held between President Bill Clinton and the Leaders of the States of the Region, among whom is President Hafez Al-Assad who met President Clinton twice, once in Geneva and the other in Damascus in 1994. In one of his tours in the area, Warren Christopher, the USA Secretary of State, presented the bases of a bargain, provided by Israelis to him, known as "Rabin’s Deposit" for withdrawal from the Golan, peace relations, security arrangements and its time schedule. It includes an Israeli commitment of withdrawal from the Golan, complete peace relations with ambassadors, open borders, economical relations, implementation of withdrawal on stages within years, nationalization of relations, establishing diplomatic relations between Syria and Israel after the first stage while the Israeli army still holding a great part of the Golan, discussion of the future of the Golan water, security arrangements covering disarmament zones, reducing the armed forces, establishing of warning stations and deploying international forces to supervise the implementation of the settlement. The American diplomacy took two directions, the first is to continue its role as a communication channel and the other is to deepen the American role in an attempt to realize an external gain that supports the position of the American Administration on credibility the internal level. The elements of the American scenario to push the Syrian-Israeli track forward are a complete withdrawal, which has three envisages basic collateral integrated pillars; settlement, security arrangements and international guarantees. This means that America is endeavoring to play the role of a mediator to the extent that does not ignore Israel's security while integrating Israel in the Region. By the role of an impartial mediator, the Americans furthermore hope that the American

technological, electronic and human would be balanced. They emphasize three points:

• Border security guarantees based on complete disarmament of the Occupied Golan

• Establishing early-warning stations

• Deeper buffer zones along the borders

The American guarantees translate into some readiness to deploy American troops in the Golan, Israel's interpretation being that American troops will command an international force not necessarily U.N one. The American administration has exercised pressure on Israeli Knesset members to defeat the project of the Golan law, "The Golan Reinforcing Law" as it is called, and which has been rejected by the Knesset. The American administration has proposed various levels of representation along the Syrian-Israeli negotiations, the last of which being the Merry land negotiations with the participation of Warner Christopher, the USA Secretary of State, as attending in some of its sessions. President Bill Clinton defined, in such Maryland negotiations, the nature of the American role as saying, "We will do our very best and all what might be required from our side within our capabilities to enable the parties to succeed, but the progress in the crux of negotiations is completely the responsibility of the parties.

Courtesy: NICE



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